Energy storage and production
Solid-state, 3D thin film batteries have significantly higher energy density and improved safety and cyclability than normal, liquid electrolyte batteries or planar, 2D lithium batteries. Due to the challenging, high aspect ratio nanostructures the 3D batteries are based on, ALD is an optimal method to reliably manufacture the battery components with ultra-high uniformity and conformality even on deep trench-like structures. Lithium-based electrodes, electrolytes and barrier films (between the electrolyte and the anode and the anode and the substrate) have been successfully manufactured with ALD, and ALD-deposited platinum works efficiently as the current collector.
Fuel cells are a promising candidate for tomorrow's clean, sustainable, distributed and small scale energy production. Of the various fuel cell types, polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEMFC) and solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) are the ones that can already benefit from the ALD technology.